Endocrine-disrupting chemicals found in the urine of Danish infants


As considerations relating to the results of publicity to probably poisonous substances on fetal and toddler well being rise, researchers report the discovering of a number of endocrine-disruptor chemical compounds in Danish infants in a latest Environment International journal research. Extra particularly, this research discovered that breastfeeding is related to a better focus of a few of these chemical compounds or their metabolites in infants in comparison with these fed a combined weight loss program.

Examine: Benzophenones, bisphenols and other polychlorinated/phenolic substances in Danish infants and their parents – including longitudinal assessments before and after introduction to mixed diet. Picture Credit score: Prostock-studio / Shutterstock.com


Bisphenols and benzophenones (BPs) are two examples of phenolic and polychlorinated substances that people are uncovered to inside their setting. These chemical compounds are generally utilized in manufacturing client merchandise; thus, they’re thought-about ubiquitous.

BPs, for instance, filter out ultraviolet (UV) rays in numerous client merchandise, together with pores and skin lotions or curtains with UV screening properties. As well as, Bisphenols, together with the extensively studied bisphenol A (BPA), some of the abundantly manufactured chemical compounds on this planet, are used to fabricate epoxy resins and polycarbonates in client merchandise and through recycling.

Triclosan and triclocarban are antibacterial brokers utilized in private care and cleansing/disinfection merchandise. Chlorophenols could be integrated into pesticides and herbicides, with 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) additionally used as a disinfectant.

Phenylphenols are fungicidal brokers and are sometimes used post-harvest to stop fungal progress in fruit orchards. These chemical compounds can also be used for industrial or family disinfection.

Most of those chemical compounds bear speedy degradation and are eradicated by urine and/or feces, thus indicating that they don’t seem to be persistent. Nonetheless, some chemical compounds exhibit pseudo-persistence, thus permitting them to stay current within the physique virtually on a regular basis as a consequence of repeated or fixed ingestion, pores and skin contact, or inhalation. This steady publicity is being investigated as a consequence of its potential for endocrine disruption.  

In Denmark, most younger males proceed to be uncovered to most of those chemical compounds regardless of present efforts to scale back their use. BPA substitutes like bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF) are being produced in additional important portions and, in consequence, have been used on a bigger scale in Europe and the USA over the past ten years.

The present human biomonitoring research was performed aimed to comply with up measurements of those substances within the urine and serum of oldsters and infants throughout breastfeeding and combined weight loss program feeding durations.

This research, which was named TRIO, included an evaluation of the urine samples of over 100 infants and their mother and father. Paired samples from about 60 infants from the FOOD research through the interval after they have been completely breastfed and after publicity to a combined weight loss program have been additionally included.

Examine findings

Of the 22 substances measured within the urine, 12 have been current in over 50% of samples from mother and father and infants. The concentrations of excreted substances assorted considerably between samples.

Within the TRIO research, BP-3 was current in virtually all samples from infants and fogeys. As well as, BPA, BPS, triclosan, and a couple of,4-DCP have been recognized in over 75% of parental samples and, besides for two,4-DCP, virtually 95% of toddler samples. BP-1 was additionally generally noticed in all samples.

Urine samples from fathers had considerably larger urinary concentrations of those substances as in comparison with these obtained from moms. Nonetheless, this distinction disappeared when estimated day by day urinary excretion (DUE) values have been used.

Infants had DUE values for BP, 4-hydroxy-benzophenone (4-BHP), BPA, BPS, triclosan, and 2-phenylphenol that have been a lot larger than these of their mother and father. The very best ranges of BP-3 have been recognized in some toddler samples, with some affected person samples reaching 20 and 40 instances as excessive as the height worth amongst fathers and moms, respectively.

The concentrations of triclosan, in addition to BP-1 and BP-3, have been extremely correlated with one another, thus suggesting that each one originated from the identical home sources. The degrees of those compounds in infants and their moms have been additionally nicely correlated, as have been 4-BHP and BPA ranges.

Between households, larger variation was noticed for the degrees of those compounds in comparison with inside households, the place mother and father confirmed a great correlation between themselves. Apart from these substances, others confirmed related will increase or decreases in correlation.

Thus, simultaneous publicity to a number of substances could have occurred inside some households. Notably, sure compounds, corresponding to BP-1 and 4-HBP, are by-products of BP and BP-3 metabolism and compounds in use for their very own properties.

Within the FOOD research, seven substances, together with BP, BP-1, BP-3, 4-HBP, BPA, and BPS, have been current in over 50% of urine samples in each teams. The excretion profile modified with the evaluation technique; nonetheless, some have been larger in infants in comparison with their mother and father.

After adjustment for osmolality, BP-1, BPA, BPS, and a couple of,4-DCP have been decrease; nonetheless, 4-BHP was larger in completely breastfed infants.

When adjusted for physique weight, completely breastfed infants excreted 4-BHP and triclosan at larger concentrations than after they have been launched to different meals. This could possibly be as a consequence of inhalation of chemical compounds from private care merchandise or cleansing merchandise, even these utilized by their mother and father. Breastmilk could possibly be one other supply of those substances.

Within the combined weight loss program group, 2,4-DCP, 2-PP, and a couple of,5-DCP have been extra generally detected. That is possible as a result of many of those are pesticides utilized in rising grains, fruits, and greens, all of which type the bottom for stable meals.

The common age of infants within the unique breastfeeding cohort was two weeks outdated in comparison with 30 weeks within the combined weight loss program cohort. Thus, the publicity size ought to be thought-about when assessing the urinary excretion profile.

No correlations have been discovered for any substance between the 2 teams, with intra-individual variation a lot larger than inter-individual variations.


Low ranges of chemical compounds have been discovered to be excreted within the urine of each infants and fogeys; nonetheless, the presence of a number of endocrine-disruptor chemical compounds in the identical samples signifies the potential for additive results with one another, in addition to with different substances within the weight loss program or the setting at giant. Most of this publicity originated from family chemical compounds and parental or toddler private care merchandise.

Total, parental publicity mirrored toddler publicity, although the degrees considerably assorted between adults and infants inside households. Increased imply ranges have been present in pregnant ladies and preconceptionally in a number of research performed in France, the U.S., and Puerto Rico. This could possibly be as a result of intentional phasing out of those compounds over the previous couple of years in Denmark.

Apparently, triclosan detection charges have been excessive; nonetheless, this substance is barely allowed in a really small group of private care merchandise in Denmark and at a really low focus.

The present research additionally establishes the significance of utilizing estimated DUEs to acquire extra correct values that replicate precise exposures. This technique helped reveal the same or larger publicity charges of infants to a number of of those substances throughout unique breastfeeding as in comparison with the introduction of different meals.

Journal reference:

  • Frederikson, H., Ljubcic, M. L., Upners, E. N., et al. (2022). Benzophenones, bisphenols and different polychlorinated/phenolic substances in Danish infants and their mother and father – together with longitudinal assessments earlier than and after introduction to combined weight loss program. Surroundings Worldwide. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2022.107532.
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