Pregnancy has no effect on long-term immune response to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination


The emergence and fast outbreak of the extreme acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulted within the coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. All through the COVID-19 pandemic, scientists have labored quickly to develop quite a few vaccines, a number of of which acquired emergency use authorization from world regulatory our bodies, comparable to america Meals and Drug Administration (FDA).

Examine: Longitudinal antibody response kinetics following SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNA vaccination in pregnant and nonpregnant persons. Picture Credit score: Marina Demidiuk /


Typically, being pregnant triggers an immunogenic shift to a Th2-mediated immunity, which may additionally result in a differential response to an infection on this affected person inhabitants. SARS-CoV-2 an infection has been related to adversarial being pregnant outcomes, together with maternal loss of life, preterm supply, stillbirth, mechanical air flow, and maternal intensive care unit (ICU) admission. 

Though COVID-19 vaccination has been really helpful for pregnant ladies, there stays an absence of information accessible concerning its efficacy on this group. That is primarily as a result of exclusion of pregnant ladies from preliminary COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine trials. 

Nonetheless, a strong maternal immune response has been reported after vaccination with mRNA-lipid nanoparticle (LNP) COVID-19 vaccines. As well as, in comparison with nonpregnant people, pregnant ladies exhibited a differential response to some vaccinations throughout gestational ages.

Subsequently, it’s crucial to grasp whether or not the immunologic milieu of being pregnant impacts the longitudinal vaccine response to mRNA-based immunization. Moreover, the long-term efficacy and kinetics of antibody responses induced after vaccination between pregnant and nonpregnant ladies needs to be additional elucidated.

Concerning the research

A current American Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology MFM research evaluated the longitudinal antibody response kinetics related to two doses of mRNA-LNP-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines developed by Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) or Moderna (mRNA-1273) in pregnant ladies throughout totally different gestational ages. All contributors acquired vaccines between December 18, 2020, and June 26, 2021.

The vaccine-induced antibody response in pregnant ladies was in contrast with that of nonpregnant people. To this finish, blood samples had been collected from contributors at totally different time factors, together with the time of the primary (t0) and second vaccine doses (t1), two weeks after the second vaccine dose (t2), and serial longitudinal follow-up as much as 41.7 weeks after administration of the primary vaccination dose.

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out to find out the presence of anti-spike (S) immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA in contributors’ blood samples. Contributors with a historical past of SARS-CoV-2 an infection, primarily based on the presence of anti-nucleocapsid antibodies, had been excluded from the present research. Pregnant ladies who acquired the booster vaccine dose and those that weren’t totally vaccinated with two-doses by the point of supply had been additionally excluded. 

Examine findings

A complete of 53 pregnant ladies had been included within the research. The nonpregnant cohort included knowledge from 21 contributors, whose median age was 36 years. Not one of the contributors from this group reported immunosuppressed circumstances nor had been they taking immunosuppressing remedy. 

All pregnant research contributors delivered liveborn infants between April 13, 2021, and November 29, 2021. Umbilical wire blood samples had been collected from 49 sufferers and had been analyzed.

Not one of the contributors had been immunosuppressed nor had been they underneath immunosuppressing remedy. The median maternal age was 35 years and gestational ages throughout vaccine administration and supply had been 26.3 weeks and 39.6 weeks, respectively.

The anti-S IgA, IgG, and IgM responses at t1 and t2 weren’t considerably related to the gestational age at immunization. Thus, the anti-S responses in pregnant contributors had been impartial of gestational age.

A comparability of various immune responses between pregnant and nonpregnant contributors revealed that IgM ranges had been considerably greater within the nonpregnant cohort at t2. Moreover, an elevated IgA response was additionally famous within the nonpregnant cohort at t1 and t2. No important distinction in IgG responses was noticed within the cohorts.  

Notably, the best stage of antibody responses occurred two weeks after the second vaccine dose for each cohorts. A decline in anti-S IgG, IgM, and IgA ranges was noticed over time, with the same sample reported in each pregnant and nonpregnant people. Maternal anti-S IgG ranges had been much like umbilical wire anti-S IgG ranges. 


The present research demonstrates that the immunologic milieu of being pregnant has no impact on the sturdiness of the anti-S IgG response to COVID-19 vaccination. At current, scientists are finding out the medical implications of low ranges of vaccine-induced IgA and IgM response in pregnant individuals and whether or not this distinction in immune response impacts pregnant ladies.

The authors strongly advocate COVID-19 vaccination at any level throughout being pregnant, because it ought to defend not solely the mom but in addition the kid by means of sturdy passive antibody switch.

Journal reference:

  • Prabhu, M., Yang, Y. J., Johnston, C. D., et al. (2023) Longitudinal antibody response kinetics following SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNA vaccination in pregnant and nonpregnant individuals. American Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology MFM, 5(2). doi:10.1016/j.ajogmf.2022.100796
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