Study reveals patterns of high blood pressure in pregnant women, linked to maternal health risks


Gestational hypertension has been acknowledged as one of many main causes of maternal loss of life worldwide.

A current Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases examine discusses the patterns of systolic blood strain (SPB) trajectory in pregnant girls and its affiliation with demographic, anthropometric knowledge, health-related behaviors, obstetric and weight acquire trajectory.

Examine: Trajectory of blood pressure levels and weight gain in pregnant women: a group-based approach. Picture Credit score: James Ogden /


The Brazilian Society of Cardiology described gestational hypertension because the presence of systolic blood strain (SBP) higher than or equal to 140 mmHg, diastolic strain (DBP) higher than or equal to 90mmHg, and headache or edema after the 20th week of being pregnant.

Gestational hypertensive syndromes have been categorized as gestational hypertension, delicate or extreme pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, persistent arterial hypertension and Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, and Low Platelets (HELLP) syndrome.

Earlier research have revealed the tendency of imply arterial blood strain (BP) to lower till the 20th week of being pregnant, following which it will increase till supply. Girls with none drop in BP in the course of the gestational interval would possibly expertise hypertensive issues.

Placental-derived hormones seem to immediately affect the BP trajectory. Moreover, marginally elevated BP ranges might enhance the chance of antepartum and postpartum problems. 

Concerning the examine

Over the previous decade, a better prevalence of weight problems and incidence of hypertensive issues have been noticed within the Brazilian inhabitants. Moreover, round 25% of maternal deaths in Brazil have been linked to arterial hypertension.

The present longitudinal, mixed-cohort examine recognized patterns of SBP trajectory throughout being pregnant. This examine included pregnant girls in any respect danger ranges who acquired prenatal care in public well being providers in Paraná, Brazil, between March 2018 and November 2019.

In section one of many examine interval, contributors had been requested about demographics, obstetric historical past, socioeconomic situation, and smoking and vitamin standing by way of a questionnaire. Part Two was performed six months after Part 1, throughout which researchers obtained related knowledge linked to gestational age, SBP and DBP measurements, all weight measurements throughout prenatal care, remedy, and the presence of edema from bodily/digital medical information of the pregnant girls.

Examine findings

A complete of 604 pregnant girls participated within the preliminary survey. All candidates with lacking knowledge had been eradicated, which left 460 pregnant girls thought of within the current examine. Curiously, pregnant girls with increased schooling had been extra more likely to take part within the survey.

About 63% of the examine contributors had been between 20 and 29 years of age. On this examine cohort, 42% had been of their first being pregnant, 3.5% used antihypertensive medicine, 7.3% reported smoking, 48.5% had eutrophic pregestational physique mass index (BMI), and 28.8% had been chubby.

A brand new technique utilizing a mixture of statistical strategies and a trajectory mannequin primarily based on teams was adopted to review BP trajectory patterns in pregnant girls. Imply SBP and DBP values of 110 mmHg and 70 mmHg, respectively, had been noticed. These values point out a discount within the second trimester, adopted by a progressive enhance in BP ranges till the top of being pregnant.

Three totally different SBP patterns had been recognized and categorized because the slightest change within the trajectory, intermediate sample, and highest BP trajectory. Girls who began being pregnant with weight problems, below antihypertensive medicine, or had been extremely educated had been likelier to be positioned below the higher trajectory of BP ranges. Nevertheless, when the sample of weight acquire throughout being pregnant was studied, no vital inclination of belonging to the upper SBP trajectory teams was noticed. 

The affiliation between the prevalence of upper SBP and higher schooling may very well be attributed to older aged pregnant girls. Nevertheless, these girls usually tend to current full knowledge, which signifies a higher adherence to prenatal suggestions.


One of many key limitations of this examine is the follow-up losses, which had been primarily because of the conversion of bodily information to digital information that occurred through the examine interval. Regardless of this limitation, the present examine revealed that schooling, weight problems, and hypertension are extremely related to a higher trajectory of SBP throughout being pregnant.

Sooner or later, there’s a want for higher monitoring of the BP ranges of pregnant girls by educated and standardized indicators. Higher documentation of those knowledge will allow well being professionals to entry data and analyze them. As well as, you will need to assess how totally different patterns of BP trajectories affect being pregnant outcomes.

Journal reference:

  • Beltrame, T. B., de Oliveira, A. C., Manera, F., et al. (2023) Trajectory of blood strain ranges and weight acquire in pregnant girls: a groupbased method. Vitamin, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Illnesses. doi:10.1016/ j.numecd.2023.06.006.
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